What Is Phenology?


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The study of phenomena or events is called phenology. It is utilized in the recording and investigation of the dates of recurring natural occurrences about seasonal climatic shifts, such as the first or last appearance of a migrant bird or the flowering of a plant. Thus, phenology combines meteorology and ecology.

Temperature is almost always the weather factor that has the greatest impact on recurring events in temperate climates;

Rainfall, humidity, or some other factor could be the cause in tropical regions. The length of the day, which changes throughout the year but stays the same in a single location on the same day every year, frequently determines the average date of natural events but does not always show how they change from year to year. With resident species, these local events are influenced by the weather that was previously present in the area; Conditions at the beginning and end of a migrant animal's migration have a greater impact on their arrival dates.

Phenomenology is also concerned with studies of the times of the same event in different localities in the same year (when differences in geographic position, soil, slope, shelter, etc., during the annual cycle of climatic and biological changes are involved) and of the sequence of various local events.

Beekeepers and gardeners who want to know when nectar-secreting flowers are at their highest production value phenological observations. The state of development of the leaf and flower buds varies from year to year and determines the best time to spray fruit trees, especially in the spring, for insect pests. A subfield of phenology is the study and application of this. Phenological records can also be used in medicine: They are utilized, for instance, to evaluate the flowering seasons of plants whose pollens cause hay fever.

Also read: Genomics

Terrestrial Ecosystems

The dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems are reflected in vegetation phenology, which is extremely sensitive to changes in land use, land cover, and climate. A lot of land surface phenology (LSP) datasets have been created using regional and global satellite observations because of the wide range of applications. The physical meanings and accuracy of these LSP datasets vary greatly because they are derived from various satellite datasets and methods. The recent advancements in LSP detections are briefly discussed in this article. Long-term LSP data records and real-time LSP monitoring are particularly discussed following the introduction of the fundamental idea of LSP metrics and detection algorithms. Further discussion is given to the LSP assessment efforts. Finally, the issues and directions for future research are discussed.

Changes in Plant Phenology and Climate Change Phenology have recently gained a lot of attention because it has been shown that the relatively low levels of climate warming that have been experienced thus far have significantly altered the timing of the development stages of plant species. This has been very important in showing policymakers and the general public that real changes have already taken place by using examples they can understand. Phenology began as a subfield of natural history that investigated how species respond to external stimuli; It now plays a significant role in climate impact research.

The sea's seasonal shifts: 

Despite its crucial role in mediating interspecific interactions and promoting ecosystem services, phenology—the science of how climate and weather affect seasonal, ecological cycles—has been understudied in marine ecosystems. Low larval survival and poor fisheries recruitment can result from seasonal mismatches between larval fishes and their prey. If different climatic drivers serve as cues for seasonal plankton blooms and fish reproduction, climate change may make mismatches more common. To show how climate change affects marine phenology, multidecadal time series with a high temporal resolution is needed. However, these time series are hard to get at sea because they are difficult to collect. The phenology of fish and zooplankton has changed rapidly in locations where such time series are present, whereas the phenology of phytoplankton and seabirds has changed in smaller or more variable ways. This suggests that different trophic levels are responding to changes differently, which could reorganize numerous ecological interactions.

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